Shorthand - WikipediaKey to Course in Isaac Pitman shorthand. Online library. New books. This ebook is usually downloaded with: Pitman's shorthand writing exercises and examination tests; a series of graduated exercises on every rule in the system and adapted for use by the private student or in public classes.. With printed key, and the matter counted and timed for testing of speed either in shorthand or typewriting. Engraved in the advanced reporting style of Pitman's shorthand by Isaac Pitman The phonographic reader: a course of reading in phonetic shorthand.
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Key to Course in Isaac Pitman shorthand
The reason they have attachments is that, as the system developed in its early days, more strokes were required than were available from the straight lines at various angles and segments of a circle. Therefore various unused combinations were made use of, e. Ray was given initial hooks to make Way and Yay, which were originally shown by the small semi-circle and the downstrokes that we now use for Rer and Ler; the combination S-CHR, not occurring in English, was used instead for downward Hay, the H sound originally being represented by only the aspirate dot and the upstroke that is now used for Yay. Sometimes choice is made for vowel indication. Large initial hook on upward Ell makes Hwel. Downward Ell halve and thicken for Ld. Sher is always downwards Shel is always upwards.
Pitman shorthand is a system of shorthand for the English language developed by Englishman Sir Isaac Pitman — , who first presented it in Doing this requires a writing instrument responsive to the user's drawing pressure: specialist fountain pens with fine, flexible nibs were originally used, but pencils are now more commonly used. Pitman shorthand uses straight strokes and quarter-circle strokes, in various orientations, to represent consonant sounds. The predominant way of indicating vowels is to use light or heavy dots, dashes, or other special marks drawn close to the consonant. Vowels are drawn before the stroke or over a horizontal stroke if the vowel is pronounced before the consonant, and after the stroke or under a horizontal stroke if pronounced after the consonant. Each vowel, whether indicated by a dot for a short vowel or by a dash for a longer, more drawn-out vowel, has its own position relative to its adjacent stroke beginning, middle, or end to indicate different vowel sounds in an unambiguous system. However, to increase writing speed, rules of "vowel indication" exist whereby the consonant stroke is raised, kept on the line, or lowered to match whether the first vowel of the word is written at the beginning, middle, or end of a consonant stroke—without actually writing the vowel.
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