Chapter 4. Lipids and Fatty AcidsCrotonic acid has 4 carbons, is included in croton oil , and is a trans mono-unsaturated fatty acid. CAS registry number Myristoleic acid has 14 carbons, is found in whale blubber , and is a cis monounsaturated fatty acid. CAS Registry Number Palmitoleic acid has 16 carbons, is found in cod liver oil , sardine oil , and herring oil , and is a cis 9-monounsaturated fatty acid. Sapienic acid has 16 carbons, is found in the skin, and is a cis 6-mono-unsaturated fatty acid. Oleic acid has 18 carbons, is found in most animal fats and olive oil , and is a cis monounsaturated fatty acid.
Lipids - Structure Of Lipids - Structure Of Fats - Triglycerides, Phospholipids, Prostaglandins
List of unsaturated fatty acids
Chapter 4. Lipids and Fatty Acids 1. Halver University of Washington Seattle, Washington 1. Fats are the fatty acid esters of glycerol and are the primary energy depots of animals. These are used for long-term energy requirements during periods of extensive exercise or during periods of inadequate food and energy intake. Fish have the unique capability of metabolizing these compounds readily and, as a result, can exist for long periods of time under conditions of food deprivation. A typical example is the many weeks of migration by salmon in their return upstream to spawn; stored lipid deposits are burned for fuel to enable body processes to continue during the strenuous journey.
Fats are one of the three main macronutrients , along with carbohydrates and proteins. Examples include cholesterol , phospholipids , and triglycerides. The terms lipid , oil , and fat are often confused. Lipid is the general term, though a lipid is not necessarily a triglyceride. Oil normally refers to a lipid with short or unsaturated fatty acid chains that is liquid at room temperature , while fat in the strict sense specifically refers to lipids that are solids at room temperature — however, fat in the broad sense may be used in food science as a synonym for lipid.
About this book
Lipid , any of a diverse group of organic compounds including fats , oils , hormones , and certain components of membranes that are grouped together because they do not interact appreciably with water. One type of lipid, the triglycerides , is sequestered as fat in adipose cells , which serve as the energy-storage depot for organisms and also provide thermal insulation. Some lipids such as steroid hormones serve as chemical messengers between cells , tissues , and organs , and others communicate signals between biochemical systems within a single cell. The membranes of cells and organelles structures within cells are microscopically thin structures formed from two layers of phospholipid molecules. Membranes function to separate individual cells from their environments and to compartmentalize the cell interior into structures that carry out special functions. So important is this compartmentalizing function that membranes, and the lipids that form them, must have been essential to the origin of life itself. Water is the biological milieu—the substance that makes life possible—and almost all the molecular components of living cells, whether they be found in animals, plants, or microorganisms, are soluble in water.
Lipid is the collective name for fats, oils, waxes and fat-like molecules such as steroids found in the body. Their roles include:. The basic unit of lipids is a triglyceride, synthesised from glycerol propane-1,2,3-triol and fatty acids. Glycerol is a type of alcohol. Alcohols are organic compounds. Their molecules are characterised by hydroxyl groups , -OH. Glycerol is a trihydric alcohol, which means each molecule has three hydroxyl groups.