Basic Grammar and Usage, 8 edition Pages 1 - 50 - Text Version | FlipHTML5The term refers also to the study of such rules and this field includes phonology , morphology and syntax , often complemented by phonetics , semantics and pragmatics. Fluent speakers of a language variety or lect have a set of internalized rules for using that form of speech. This rule set constitutes the lect's grammar. Much of this work is done during early childhood; learning a language later in life usually involves a greater degree of explicit instruction. The term "grammar" can also be used to describe the rules that govern the linguistic behavior of a group of speakers.
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No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored or used in any form or byDevelopment Editor: Cathylnn Richard any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited toDodson photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, Web distribution,Assistant Editor: Janine Tangney information networks, or information storage and retrieval systems, exceptEditorial Assistant: Melanie Opacki as permitted under Section or of the United States CopyrightMarketing Manager: Kirsten Stoller Act, without the prior written permission of the publisher. For your course and learning solutions, visit www. She and Dorothy Clark, who hasbeen a coauthor of this text since the fourth edition, are gratified that instruc-tors continue to use our book. At thesuggestion of instructors, Units 3 and 4 now include separate exercises that requirestudents to compose their own sentences, using the structures discussed in eachchapter for example, compound sentences, parenthetical expressions, or restrictiveand nonrestrictive clauses. In Unit 6, students are also asked to write sentencesusing parallel structure and correctly positioned modifiers. The section on apostro-phes has also been rewritten and expanded. The eighth edition retains the chapter on composing paragraphs that firstappeared in the seventh edition.
Barring some exceptions, these rules are more or less universal, and can be applied to any conversation in that language. Just like those old math textbooks from your school days, grammar books show you the rules and help you use them correctly. Each of them has its advantages and you can choose the most relevant ones depending on your learning needs. Every video comes with interactive subtitles , which you can click for an instant, in-context definition of any word. FluentU helps you learn fast with useful questions and multiple examples.