Computer Science for Everyone - 5 - Types of programming languages
A programming language is a formal language , which comprises a set of instructions that produce various kinds of output. Programming languages are used in computer programming to implement algorithms. Most programming languages consist of instructions for computers. There are programmable machines that use a set of specific instructions , rather than general programming languages. Early ones preceded the invention of the digital computer , the first probably being the automatic flute player described in the 9th century by the brothers Musa in Baghdad , during the Islamic Golden Age. Thousands of different programming languages have been created, and more are being created every year.
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Programming language theory PLT is a branch of computer science that deals with the design, implementation, analysis, characterization, and classification of programming languages and their individual features. It falls within the discipline of computer science , both depending on and affecting mathematics , software engineering , linguistics and even cognitive science. It is a well-recognized branch of computer science, and an active research area, with results published in numerous journals dedicated to PLT, as well as in general computer science and engineering publications. In some ways, the history of programming language theory predates even the development of programming languages themselves. The lambda calculus , developed by Alonzo Church and Stephen Cole Kleene in the s, is considered by some to be the world's first programming language, even though it was intended to model computation rather than being a means for programmers to describe algorithms to a computer system.