Cancer - WikipediaCancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. Many cancers can be prevented by not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, not drinking too much alcohol , eating plenty of vegetables , fruits and whole grains , vaccination against certain infectious diseases, not eating too much processed and red meat and avoiding too much sunlight exposure. In , about Cancers are a large family of diseases that involve abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. A neoplasm or tumor is a group of cells that have undergone unregulated growth and will often form a mass or lump, but may be distributed diffusely. All tumor cells show the six hallmarks of cancer. These characteristics are required to produce a malignant tumor.
Treatment of cancer
Cancer can be treated by surgery , chemotherapy , radiation therapy , hormonal therapy , targeted therapy including immunotherapy such as monoclonal antibody therapy and synthetic lethality. The choice of therapy depends upon the location and grade of the tumor and the stage of the disease, as well as the general state of the patient performance status. A number of experimental cancer treatments are also under development. Under current estimates, two in five people will have cancer at some point in their lifetime. Complete removal of the cancer without damage to the rest of the body that is, achieving cure with near-zero adverse effects is the ideal goal of treatment and is often the goal in practice. Sometimes this can be accomplished by surgery, but the propensity of cancers to invade adjacent tissue or to spread to distant sites by microscopic metastasis often limits its effectiveness; and chemotherapy and radiotherapy can have a negative effect on normal cells.
Cancer is caused by accumulated damage to genes. Such changes may be due to chance or to exposure to a cancer causing substance. The substances that cause cancer are called carcinogens. A carcinogen may be a chemical substance, such as certain molecules in tobacco smoke. The cause of cancer may be environmental agents, viral or genetic factors. We should bear in mind, though, that in the majority of cancer cases we cannot attribute the disease to a single cause. Lifestyles can prevent cancer.
There are many types of cancer treatment. The types of treatment that you receive will depend on the type of cancer you have and how advanced it is. Some people with cancer will have only one treatment. When you need treatment for cancer, you have a lot to learn and think about. It is normal to feel overwhelmed and confused.
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Cancer refers to any one of a large number of diseases characterized by the development of abnormal cells that divide uncontrollably and have the ability to infiltrate and destroy normal body tissue. Cancer often has the ability to spread throughout your body. Cancer is the second-leading cause of death in the world. But survival rates are improving for many types of cancer, thanks to improvements in cancer screening and cancer treatment. Make an appointment with your doctor if you have any persistent signs or symptoms that concern you. If you don't have any signs or symptoms, but are worried about your risk of cancer, discuss your concerns with your doctor. Ask about which cancer screening tests and procedures are appropriate for you.