Nation-building - WikipediaAlthough there are many differences between them, these nations also have certain characteristics in common. At any one time, these can include political and economic instability, poverty, civil disorder, terrorism, human trafficking, ethnic conflict, disease and genocide. Ashraf Ghani and Clare Lockhart have worked in many of these countries. In they founded the Institute for State Effectiveness in Washington, DC, to help advise countries that are trying to make the leap from failed to functioning state. Before that, Mr Ghani was finance minister in the first post-Taliban government in Afghanistan. Past efforts at state-building have been dogged, Mr Ghani and Ms Lockhart argue, by a failure to understand what developing countries need in order to be effective in the modern world, particularly with regard to engaging their citizens and connecting to the global network of economic and political power. The outside world has also failed to help struggling governments become effective.
Ashraf Ghani Defines Nation Building and State Building
First, the struggle for independence that was mainly characterized by the claim for land that had been taken away by the colonizers. Second was the struggle for autonomy and self-determination, mainly through political resistance. The authors in this book analyse historical trajectories of Kenya's nationalism trends while highlighting the role of political leaders, large as well as small ethnic groups, perennial conflicts, community as well as religious leaders, among others. The discussions demonstrate that quest for a national identity that is inclusive at all levels — whether politically, economically, religiously and ethnically — has marked Kenya's struggle for nationalism, sometimes leading to violence, especially during election periods, national unity through political coalitions and reconciliation, as well as institutional reforms. In conclusion, the authors demonstrate that while Kenya is gradually advancing towards national cohesion, there are still many challenges yet to be surmounted.
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Challenges of Nation Building Cartoons Explaination-Chapter-01--Social Study-
Nation-building is constructing or structuring a national identity using the power of the state. According to Harris Mylonas , "Legitimate authority in modern national states is connected to popular rule, to majorities. Nation-building is the process through which these majorities are constructed. Nation builders are those members of a state who take the initiative to develop the national community through government programs, including military conscription and national content mass schooling. According to Columbia University political scientist Andreas Wimmer , three factors tend to determine the success of nation-building over the long-run: "the early development of civil-society organisations, the rise of a state capable of providing public goods evenly across a territory, and the emergence of a shared medium of communication.